Researchers Identify Two Genes Responsible for Brain’s Aging
The bone was 68 million years old, and conventional wisdom about fossilization is that all soft tissue, from blood to brains , decomposes. Only hard parts, like bones and teeth, can become fossils. But for some people, the discovery raised a different question. How do scientists know the bones are really 68 million years old? Today’s knowledge of fossil ages comes primarily from radiometric dating, also known as radioactive dating. Radiometric dating relies on the properties of isotopes.
List of State Fossils
But we wanted to give our readers a chance at helping their favorite extinct reptiles find true love. Someone’s gotta look out for the over s crowd, right? Here are some of your best submissions, lightly edited for spelling and space.
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To the modern mind, it does resemble a dinosaur. There are, however, several problems with this hypothesis. The first problem is that the alleged plates also resemble artistic flourishes that occur in many other carvings around the temple. They do look a little different from the other flourishes, but the possibility that they are flourishes cannot be ruled out. If the flourishes are removed, the creature bears less resemblance to a dinosaur and more resemblance to something like a rhinoceros.
For one thing, the animal lacks the prominent spikes on the back of the tail that are so characteristic of the dinosaur.
Have Scientists Discovered a Fossilised Dinosaur Brain?
I knew all the polysyllabic names, read all the books, and had opinions about whether Tyrannosaurus rex was a predator or a scavenger. I spent most summer afternoons staring out at my boring lawn and imagining it spiced up with a few lumbering sauropods. We can’t send you beer, but we can send you our newsletter!
Oct 27, · The million-year-old specimen is a stunningly well-preserved sample of mineralized tissue from inside a Cretaceous dinosaur’s skull.
Visit Website Samples of the mineralized collagen fibers extracted by the team. After finding what looked like red blood cells in two of the fossils, the researchers explored the possibility that the blood might be the result of historical contamination; for example, a curator or collector might have had a cut when they handled the specimen.
But when they sliced through one of the red blood cells and saw what looked like a nucleus, they felt confident the blood was not human. Red blood cells of humans, like other mammals, are unusual among vertebrates because they lack a cell nucleus. While examining a cross-section of a fossilized rib bone, the researchers spotted bands of fibers. When tested, the fibers were found to contain the same amino acids that make up collagen, the main structural protein found in skin and other soft tissues.
More tests remain to confirm that the materials the Imperial scientists found are in fact genuine red blood cells and collagen fibers, but if confirmed, the implications of the new findings are huge. If such sub-par fossils could contain soft tissue, similar materials could be preserved on any of the numerous dinosaur bones housed in museums around the world. By studying soft tissue material, scientists could gain access to a whole new realm of information about dinosaur evolution, physiology and behavior.
Such new information might provide clues to longstanding mysteries about the relationships between different species of dinosaurs, as well as the much-debated question of whether dinosaurs were cold-blooded, warm-blooded like their modern-day descendants, birds or somewhere in between.
Flying flesh-eating dinosaur the size of a PLANE discovered in Mongolia
Or do tar pits eventually turn into oil shales or something? Catlover September 20, at 8: Sometimes a fossil is just a fossil. It is a fossil of a joke, of course. I was walking on the college campus and many beautiful coeds ran up to me and said they wanted to date me.
First-ever dinosaur brain tissue found Photograph shows what scientists have identified as the first known example of fossilized brain tissue from a dinosaur (shown next to a coin for size Founded: Sep 18,
The world’s first known example of fossilized brain tissue from a dinosaur. Then a fossil hunter found the stone in Scientists have now determined the clump was actually the fossilized brain tissue of a large leaf-eating dinosaur, possibly from a species similar to the Iguanodon. The specimen is the world’s first known example of dinosaur brain tissue, according to a special publication by the Geological Society of London released Thursday.
Paleontologists just found a 2, pound T. The discovery may shed light on how the brains of dinosaurs and other ancient creatures evolved over millions of years, an area that has long stumped researchers. Brain tissue, unlike durable bones and teeth, is often one of the first parts of the body to decay. The finding could also help other paleontologists to spot more fossilized dinosaur brains, now that they know to look for clues in unassuming clumps of dirt, said Lawrence Witmer, a professor of anatomy at Ohio University’s Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine, who was not involved with the new research.
Why Did the Dinosaurs Die Out?
Messenger What did the ancestors of dinosaurs look like? For decades, our knowledge of close dinosaur relatives has been based largely on animals like the Triassic Period reptile Marasuchus , a tiny, squirrel-sized critter that moved rapidly on two legs. Dinosaur ancestors, according to the conventional story, looked much like dinosaurs, just shrunken down to the size of something you might accidentally squash under your foot. However, in a new paper in the journal Nature , my colleagues and I describe a new species of Triassic reptile, Teleocrater rhadinus, which fundamentally challenges this status quo of dinosaur origins.
Dinosaurs appeared during the Triassic Period, with the oldest uncontroversial dinosaur fossils being about m years old.
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Monday 31 October Criticism of the British evolutionary biologist came up repeatedly in a new study looking at public understanding of science and how scientists feel that they are portrayed in the media — despite respondents never actually being asked about him. The research was published in a recent edition of Public Understandings of Science as part of a broader study looking at how scientists feel about religion. As part of the study, the researchers conducted a survey of over 20, scientists from eight countries.
In the UK, the researchers surveyed 1, randomly sampled scientists. They then spoke to of them for in-depth interviews to see what they thought. The image’s colours have been enhanced after it was sent back to Earth. The tallest of the skeletons uncovered measured at 1.
Dinosaurs’ Living Descendants
The specimen is thought to have come from a large plant eater such as Iguanodon, which lived about million years ago. It was found on a beach near Bexhill by fossil hunter Jamie Hiscocks in Scientists believe the dead dinosaur’s head was buried in mud at the bottom of a swamp, allowing its brain to be “pickled” and preserved. In time the soft tissues became mineralised. But the fossil retained distinctive features such as the meninges – a protective membrane surrounding the brain – blood vessels, collagen and structures thought to represent the outer layer of nerve cells, or cortex.
A detailed study of the “pebble” has revealed similarities with the brains of present-day birds and crocodiles, both close relatives of dinosaurs.
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July 31, , American Museum of Natural History This CT scan shows a modern woodpecker Melanerpes aurifrons with its brain cast rendered opaque and the skull transparent. The endocast is partitioned into the following neuroanatomical regions: Balanoff New research provides evidence that dinosaurs evolved the brainpower necessary for flight well before they actually took to the air as birds.
Based on high-resolution X-ray computed tomographic CT scans, the study, published today in Nature, takes a comprehensive look at the so-called “bird brain. In the new study, scientists reveal that at least a few non-avian dinosaurs had brains that were as large or larger than that of Archaeopteryx, indicating that some dinosaurs already suspected of possessing flight capability would have had the neurological hardwiring necessary for this behavior.
This “hyperinflation,” most obvious in the forebrain , is important for providing the superior vision and coordination required to fly. But scientists are increasingly finding that features once considered exclusive to modern birds, such as feathers and the presence of wishbones, are now known to have first appeared in non-avian dinosaurs. The new study provides more evidence to add the hyperinflated brain to that list. The researchers used CT scanners at the University of Texas, Ohio University, Stony Brook University, and the Museum to peer inside the braincases of more than two dozen specimens , including modern birds, Archaeopteryx, and closely related non-avian dinosaurs like tyrannosaurs.
By stitching together the CT scans, the scientists created 3-D reconstructions of the skulls’ interiors. In addition to calculating the total volume of each digital brain cast, the research team also determined the size of each brain’s major anatomical regions, including the olfactory bulbs, cerebrum, optic lobes, cerebellum, and brain stem.
This video shows the three-dimensional scan of an albatross Phoebastria immutabilis skull and brain endocast shown in blue taken with high-resolution X-ray computed tomography. The specimen is one of more than two dozen skulls of modern birds, early extinct birds, and closely related dinosaurs scanned for a recent study on “bird brains” led by the American Museum of Natural History. Balanoff “The story of brain size is more than its relationship to body size,” said coauthor Gabriel Bever, an assistant professor of anatomy at the New York Institute of Technology.
Bird brains predate birds themselves: ‘Flight-ready’ brain was present in some non-avian dinosaurs
Paleontologist Dave Hone recently compiled a list of eight persistent falsehoods over at the Guardian —from the misapprehension that all dinosaurs were huge to the untenable idea that Tyrannosaurus could only scavenge its meals—but there was one particular misunderstanding that caught my attention. For decades, popular articles and books claimed that the armor-plated Stegosaurus and the biggest of the sauropod dinosaurs had second brains in their rumps.
It was a cute idea, but a totally wrong hypothesis that actually underscores a different dinosaur mystery. Dinosaur brain expert Emily Buchholtz outlined the double brain issue in the newly-published second edition of The Complete Dinosaur. The idea stems from the work of 19th-century Yale paleontologist Othniel Charles Marsh. These huge dinosaurs seemed to have pitiful brain sizes compared to the rest of their body, and a second brain—or similar organ—could have helped coordinate their back legs and tails.
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Several species a priori recognized as exclusive of the Portuguese, Spanish and French records were defined. The most abundant and best preserved Spanish collection of pleurodiran turtles from the last Stages of the Upper Cretaceous comes from the fossil site of Lo Hueco Cuenca Province, Central Spain. The bothremydid Iberoccitanemys convenarum, defined by a single specimen from the Maastrichtian of Haute-Garonne Southern France , was subsequently recognized as a very abundant form in this Spanish site, corresponding to the only bothremydid so far identified as being part of the diversity of Bothremydidae of both countries.
The presence of a second member of Bothremydidae was recognized in Lo Hueco, representing the only evidence of the synchronic and sympatric coexistence of two members of this lineage in a European site. However, very scarce information about this second form from Lo Hueco was available. Thus, its attribution to a new taxon or to a member of Foxemydina previously identified in the Spanish record, or in that of other European regions, could not be evaluated until now.
New material from Lo Hueco, not attributable to Iberoccitanemys convenarum but to this second larger form, allows its generic and specific identification. Close paleobiogeographical relationships considering the fauna of pleurodiran turtles from Spain and France are recognized thanks to the findings performed in Lo Hueco: The Anatomical Record advance online publication https:
Dinosaur Bones Wiki Commons. What they have been telling us simply does not fit the facts. The truth is that this latest find is even more evidence that dinosaurs are far, far younger than we have traditionally been taught. Once upon a time, scientists believed that it would be impossible to find anything other than the hardened fossilized remains of extinct dinosaurs.
Dinosaur intelligence has been a point of contention for paleontologists. Non-avian dinosaurs were once regarded as being unintelligent animals but have largely been appraised more generously since the dinosaur renaissance.
The generic name recognizes Roberto Abel as the discoverer of the specimen and former director of the provincial Museum of Cipolletti in Argentina, where the specimen is housed. It also incorporates the Greek sauros, meaning ‘lizard’. There is one named species, A. Both genus and species were named and described by Argentine paleontologists Jose Bonaparte and Fernando Novas in , who placed it in the newly-created family Abelisauridae.
Many other abelisaurids have since been discovered, including extremely complete specimens of Aucasaurus, Carnotaurus and Majungasaurus. Some scientists place Abelisaurus as a basal abelisaurid, outside the subfamily Carnotaurinae. Others are less certain of its position. Abelisaurids share some skull features with the unrelated carcharodontosaurids and, since Abelisaurus is known only from a skull, future discoveries may show that this genus was in fact a carcharodontosaurid.
However, this is thought unlikely.
Bony head ornaments signal some supersized dinosaurs
Back to top Vocab Challenge Cards T. Tomm, Havana Junior High, Havana, IL I prepare several sets of these cards to give students a chance to review important terms from the dinosaur and fossil unit. I copy the cards on one side of cover stock and the answers or letters to match on the other. Once the students have matched all the cards, they can check their work by turning the cards over.
If the letters match, they are correct. If not, they know the ones they need to study!
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Oviraptorosauria , by A. Norell, American Museum Novitates The abstract is as follows: We provide a description of the holotype skull of the unusual oviraptorosaur Incisivosaurus gauthieri. The presence of many primitive characteristics e. This arrangement indicates that although the incisiform teeth of I. About the Species This specimen, the holotype and only known specimen, was discovered in the Early Cretaceous rocks of northeastern China.
It was collected from the lower part of the Yixian Formation. It was scanned along the coronal axis for a total of slices, and each X pixel slice is 0. About the Scan Literature Alonso, P. The braincase of Apatosaurus Dinosauria: The Jehol biota Lower Cretaceous, China: On a new Late Cretaceous family of small theropods Oviraptoridae fam.