Origins[ edit ] The old centre of Cambrai was established on a small rise overlooking, from the right bank, the marshy area of the Scheldt Valley. Indications suggest that a castrum was built at this location, although the scarcity of excavations at Cambrai in has provided no archaeological evidence. Development[ edit ] Faubourgs were developed, at the time of the Merovingian prosperity, to the north and west of the primitive castrum, around the churches of Saint-Vaast and Saint-Aubert. The looting of the city by the Vikings in December convinced the Bishop Dodilon to strengthen and expand fortifications: The new enclosure he built tripled the size of the city. This abbey was certainly also protected by an enclosure. The space which separated these two urban cores hosted markets and fairs. The town hall, the market, butcher and various bodies of craftsmen settled in this new urban space that Bishop Lietbert had protected by an earth rampart. Therefore Cambrai had reached the perimeter it would retain until the 19th century:
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Boulogne-sur-Mer Images — Copyright Informationfrance. Boulogne-sur-Mer is the largest fishing port in France and so the emphasis, as you would expect, is very much on seafood and all things connected with the sea. The Chamber of Commerce organises guided tours for groups and it is fascinating to visit — and you can also buy fish to take home. Centre Ville Much frequented by the British in the 19th century when the South Eastern railways owned the port of Folkestone and the route to Boulogne rivalled that of Dover to Calais for the cross channel trade, this route was abandoned in recent years.
A new service is bringing the British back to Boulogne but in reality, the British have never stayed away. Boulogne with its cobbled square and vibrant market, its superb seafood restaurants and bistros has always had great appeal.
Boulogne-sur-Mer (French Print: La Voix du Nord (édition de Boulogne sur Mer), La Semaine dans le Boulonnais, Touzazimut; Events. In , the first World Esperanto Congress was held in Boulogne-sur-Mer, where the historic Declaration of Boulogne was ratified. L. L.
Origins[ edit ] The Parisii , a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones , inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. It became a prosperous city with a forum, baths, temples, theatres, and an amphitheatre. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Under the rule of the Capetian kings, Paris gradually became the largest and most prosperous city in France. Paris in the Middle Ages , Paris in the 16th century , and Paris in the 17th century By the end of the 12th century, Paris had become the political, economic, religious, and cultural capital of France.
Paris’s cultural centre had begun to move to the Right Bank, the swampland there having been transformed into farmland. In the late 12th century, Philip Augustus extended the Louvre fortress to defend the city against river invasions from the west, gave the city its first walls between and , rebuilt its bridges to either side of its central island, and paved its main thoroughfares.
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Petri de Cortenajo militis” . He succeeded his mother in as Seigneur de Conches. He was fatally wounded at the battle of Furnes. Henrico de Soliaco senior miles Ludovici comitis Ebroicensis germani nostri His parentage is confirmed by the Continuatio of the Chronicle of Guillaume de Nangis which records the betrothal in of “Robertus Philippi Atrebatensis filius” and “Blancham alteram filiarum quondam ducis Burgundie” .
The Chronicle of Guillaume de Nangis records that the second daughter of “Philippus filius Roberti comitis Attrebatensis” married “Gasto filius Remundi Bernardi comitis Fuxinensis” . Letters of Philippe IV “le Bel” King of France dated 7 April at Saint-Germain-en-Laye recall the private agreements between “Rogerius Bernardi comes Fuxi et vicecomes Bearnii” and “Philippus primogenitus…consanguinei nostri Roberti comitis Attrebatensis tempore quo vivebat” relating to the marriage between “Gasconem Fuxi primogeniti dicti comitis” and “Johannam filiam dicti Philippi” .
The final marriage contract is contained in letters of King Philippe IV dated Oct at Senlis which, taking into account the recent emancipation of Gaston de Foix, confirm at the latter’s request the marriage between “Gastonem filium et fidelem nostrum Rogerium comitis Fuxensis” and “consanguineam nostram Johannam natam pie memorie Philippi primogeniti…consanguinei et fidelis nostri comitis Attrebatensis” . Accused of scandalous conduct and prodigality, she was removed from power by her husband, and later by her son.
He succeeded his father in as Comte de Foix, under the regency of his mother. The primary source which confirms his parentage has not been identified.
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County of Boulogne In the Middle Ages Boulogne was the capital of an eponymous county , founded in the mid-9th century. His wife founded the city’s Notre Dame cathedral, which became a site of pilgrimage from the 12th century onwards, attended by fourteen French kings and five of England. It was an important whaling center prior to Boulogne was again occupied by the English from to France bought back Boulogne for , crowns.
A culture of smuggling was present in the city until , when French gains in Flanders from the Treaty of the Pyrenees moved the border northwards. However, his plans were halted by other European matters and the supremacy of the Royal Navy. He was later jailed for trying to lead a revolt in Strasbourg. Battle of Boulogne and Operation Wellhit During the First World War , this was the debarkation port for the first unit of the British Expeditionary Force to land in France, and for many others thereafter.
It was closed and cleared on 27 August when the Allies were forced to fall back ahead of the German advance, but was opened again in October and from that month to the end of the war, Boulogne and Wimereux formed one of the chief hospital areas.
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He is named as son of Audacer in the list of counts of Flanders recorded in the Cartulaire de Saint-Bertin , which records his year of death and place of burial . His birth date range is estimated on the assumption that he was a young adult at the time of his marriage, which means that he must have been a child when his father died. He eloped with his future wife around Christmas The Annales Blandinienses name “Baldwinum Ferreum filium Audacri” and “Balduvinus filius Audacri” when recording respectively his abduction of his wife in and his death in .
An agreement dated 14 Jun of Emperor Charles II “le Chauve”, presumably written with his own death in mind, names “…ex comitibus aut Tedericus, aut Balduinus, sive Chuonradus, seu Adalelmus” as those willing to support the emperor’s son .
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Boulogne-sur-Mer is the leading fishing port in France with a diversified fleet of about one hundred vessels and more than 70 different species landed each day. In the early twentieth century, Boulogne is the first port of France in landed tonnage. It’s herring which made his fortune with, for example in more than 30 tonnes landed equivalent to fifty million francs of the time. At Boulogne, as elsewhere in Europe, artisanal fisheries since the late nineteenth century and industrial fisheries face the depletion of certain fisheries resources induced by overfishing and probably later exacerbated by global warming and pollution.
Today, the optimal catch valuation, diversification of exploitation of wild resources and the development of aquaculture are among the thematic programs of national competitiveness cluster Aquimer In , 47 tonnes of fish were landed This decrease is partly explained by disarming a fresh six of Euronor fishing boats, by protecting spawning stocks cod quotas and the “biological rest” of part of the fleet in summer and winter of In , nearly 45 tonnes of fish were recorded of which 35 tonnes landed in port and tonnes of frozen fish in the sea Euronor.
In November , the Regional Council has announced the establishment of a fishing mission with “an audit for Boulogne port fishing platform strategy for 10 to 15 years to come. These facilities are made with a delay of 6 months because of the additional time that was needed to clean up the site Comilog.